The study aimed at understanding factors that drive violence against women from men’s and women’s perceptive as part of a Community Randomized Control Trial aimed at reducing violence against women. It is based on the Ecological Model, a well-documented and greatly acclaimed theoretical model that considers the inclusion of multiple domains of risk and protective factors for IPV perpetration by men or IPV victimization in women and based on multiple theories that include power (unequal gender relations), resource, social learning amongst others. The model organizes factors into four levels of influence (individual, relationship, community and societal levels). Individual level factors include low education level, young age, low economic status/income, unemployment and harmful use of alcohol or illicit drugs among others, and relationship level factors include education disparity among couples or how couples communication. Acceptance of violence against women, weak community sanctions and lack of societal legislation are among those factors identified at community and societal levels. Annex 1 shows Theory of Change for the study.
The main objectives of the baseline study were to:
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced years of conflict. Millions have died or been displaced with a collapse of basic services. While the First Congo War (1996–1997) and the Second Congo War (1998–2003) are long past, conflict-related violence continues. Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is estimated to be very high. Conflict has increased all forms of VAWG, including sexual violence perpetrated by rebels, militia, soldiers, peacekeepers and civilians, as well as intimate partner violence (IPV) in the home. Congolese society is also characterised by gender inequality with widespread impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence.1
While the media often portray sexual violence as militia-related, findings of various studies, including the present one, suggest otherwise. Promundo’s International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) found that IPV is more prevalent than non-partner sexual violence (NPSV), with 45 per cent of women in eastern DRC reporting having ever experienced physical IPV and 49 per cent reporting having ever experienced sexual IPV. Rape as part of conflict is also high, reported by 22 per cent of women.2 The 2014 Demographic and Health Survey found that 57 per cent of ever-married 15–49-year-old women reported having ever experienced any type of IPV (physical, emotional or sexual) and 16 per cent reported experiencing sexual IPV or NPSV in the past 12 months.3 Violence against women and girls in DRC is thus not only a weapon of war but is ‘used as a weapon in daily life to oppress and abuse women and girls across the whole country’.
This study examines the unique experience of adolescent girls by exploring the types of GBV and drivers of violence within the context of South Sudan, where women and girls experience high levels of gender inequality and subordination. Data was collected under the What Works programme, and secondary analysis of this data set focusing on the experiences of violence against adolescent girls was supported by the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence consortium. Key findings can inform policymakers and donors as they support programs that will effectively prevent and respond to violence against adolescent girls in conflict and humanitarian settings.
Developed with support from the US Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration and the UK Department for International Development as part of the What Works programme, this manual aims to support researchers and members of the humanitarian community in conducting ethical and technically sound research, monitoring and/or evaluation on gender-based violence within refugee and conflict-affected populations.
Mixed-methods evaluation of intervention to prevent violence against women in Tajikistan
The Zindagii Shoista (Living with Dignity) project was implemented by International Alert, Cesvi and three local partners – ATO, Farodis and Zanoni Sharq – in four villages in Tajikistan with 80 families.
It aimed to reduce violence against women and girls (VAWG) through a combination of gender norm, behavioural change and income-generating activities (IGA) over a period of 15 months.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a widely recognised human rights violation with serious consequences for the health and well-being of women, with ramifications for households, businesses, communities and society overall. Even though violence against women is widely accepted as a fundamental human right and public health issue, its wider impact on development is being recognised only recently. There are only few studies that estimate the costs of VAWG.
It is well established that violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human rights violation and public health issue. Worldwide, one in three women report experiencing some form of physical and/or sexual violence, predominantly perpetrated by a partner or ex-partner, over their lifetime (WHO 2013). More recently, there is a growing recognition of the wider economic and social costs of VAWG for individuals, the community, businesses, society and the economy.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a widely recognised human rights violation with serious consequences for the health and well-being of women and their families. However, the wider ramifications of violence against women for businesses, communities, economies and societies are only recently being recognised. Despite this recognition, there are few studies exploring how economic and social impacts of VAWG affect economic growth, development and social stability. In this paper, applying the social accounting approach, we outline the ripple effects of VAWG from the individual micro-level impacts to the macroeconomy.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. VAWG also has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but ripple through society and the economy at large. The threat VAWG poses to the social fabric of the country and its impacts on economic development have not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in Pakistan.
Women for Women International aims to create a world in which every woman can determine the course of her life and reach her full potential. We have worked with half a million women across eight conflict-affected countries since 1993.
We serve the most marginalized women in conflict-affected countries – as they are the most at risk to be left behind – and help them move from isolation and poverty to self-sufficiency and empowerment.
Changes Over Time in Women’s Experiences of Violence & Wellbeing
Cash and voucher assistance (CVA) has quickly become one of most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. In humanitarian contexts, cash assistance has been shown to have significant positive impacts on food security and basic needs for households, helping them to withstand conflict-related economic shocks and market fluctuations, and reducing their reliance on negative coping.
Humanitarian cash transfer programming has become one of the most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. This International Rescue Committee (IRC) study is among the first to explore the potential impact that cash transfer programming may have on violence against women and girls (VAWG) in acute settings. In conflict and emergency settings, women and girls are vulnerable to increased violence, exploitation, and harm to their physical and mental health.
This report summarises the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to Pakistan. It provides an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals and households, businesses and communities, and the national economy and society. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on economic productivity and wellbeing, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
This report provides a summary of the key ndings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project from Ghana. It also provides an overview of the costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals, households, businesses and the economy. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on wellbeing and economic productivity, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is one of the most widespread human rights violations. VAWG is a signi cant social, economic and public health problem. Globally, 35% of women have experienced physical/sexual IPV or non-partner sexual violence in their lives. We know that this violence has implications for women’s health and wellbeing; however, we have less understanding about the impacts of VAWG on communities, businesses, and the national economy. While it has been estimated that violence against women and girls costs the global economy about US$8t, there are few studies, particularly of developing countries, that outline the national-level economic costs of such violence. Similarly, few studies explicitly analyse the social costs of VAWG.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. Further, VAWG is an under-examined, but crucial component of the overall crisis in South Sudan. VAWG has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised either in South Sudan or internationally. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but also ripple through society and the economy at large. The impacts of VAWG on economic development has not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in South Sudan.
This report presents a short summary of the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to South Sudan. It is intended to provide an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) in South Sudan that can be used to deepen understanding, and act as an advocacy tool to encourage investment in efforts to address VAWG.
This study draws on three case countries – Nepal, Sierra Leone and South Sudan – to address gaps in evidence and understanding on violence against women and girls (VAWG) during post-conflict transition. It highlights the potential for state-building and peacebuilding processes to address VAWG, and the effect this has in advancing sustainable peace.
This is the first time that a systematic approach has been taken to bridge the gap between VAWG and post-conflict state-building / peace-building policies and processes. The study was led by the George Washington Institute (GWI), CARE International UK and International Rescue Committee (IRC).
This report presents the evaluation results of a project to curb levels of VAWG in rural Tajikistan, where around 60 per cent of women experience sexual, physical and emotional violence. Baseline research found that drivers include gender norms, social pressure, poverty, food insecurity, mental health issues, and alcohol and substance abuse. The project worked with 80 families across four villages, running weekly sessions to improve behaviours, relationships and communication, and also strengthening , livelihoods and financial management skills. Grants were given, in the form of livestock and equipment, to aid income generating activities, and the report outlines the success in reducing violence and making relationships stronger and more equitable.
Many Afghan children experience violence both at home, at the hands of parents, and at school, both from their peers and from teachers inflicting corporal punishment. This report examines the effectiveness of HTAC’s school-based Peace Education scheme, as implemented across 20 schools in the Jawzjan province. HTAC also implemented community-based activities aimed at preventing violence, through the training of community leaders and parents in conflict resolution and women’s rights, reinforced with positive radio messaging. The report presents the final of Help the Afghan Children’s (HTAC’s) school-based peace education and community-based social norms change intervention and is intended to raise awareness among governmental and non-governmental organisations, donors and policy makers about what works to prevent violence against children.